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Hipofiz Bezi’nin Sağlığımız Açısından Önemi

AnasayfaKadın ve HamilelikHipofiz Bezi’nin Sağlığımız Açısından Önemi

Hipofiz bezi, şekli bezelyeye benzeyen  ve sadece 0.5 gr ağırlığında olan küçük bir bezdir, ancak vücudun endokrin sisteminin ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır. Vücudun çeşitli temel işlevlerindeki önemi nedeniyle bu beze ana bez de denir. Vücuttaki işlevlerin düzenlenmesini sağlayan sistemin temel bir parçasıdır.hipofiz-bezi-nerede-gorevleri

Hipofiz bezi nerede?

Hipofiz bezi, beynin tabanında bulunan sfenoid kemikteki sella turcica’da bulunur. Beynin kontrolünden sorumlu olan beyin kısmının bir parçası olan hipotalamusun altındaki alandadır. Hipofiz bezinin iki büyük lobu vardır. Birincisi, küçük kan damarları tarafından beynin içine katılan ve arasında cinsel olgunlaşma, çoğalma ve genel vücut gelişiminin kontrolünden sorumlu ön hipofiz lobu. İkinci ana lob, hipotalamusa, küçük bir tüp olan pituitary stalk ile bağlanan arka pituiter bezdir. Lobun ürettiği önemli hormonlar oksitosin ve antidiüretik‘tir.

Hipofiz Bezinin Görevleri Nedir?

Hipofiz bezinden salgılanan hormonlar, ağrıdan kurtarmaya ve cinsel organların işlevine kadar değişen geniş bir vücut işlevini kontrol eder. Kulaktan salgılanan hormonların işlevselliğini düzenlemek için kan yoluyla diğer organlara ulaşır. Hipofiz bezi, farklı hücrelerden ve diğer bezlerden tetik sinyallerini aldıktan sonra vücudun ihtiyacına göre farklı hormonlar salgılar.

Hipofiz Gland Üreten Hormonlar

Başlangıçta belirtildiği üzere bezin iki ana lobu, ön pituiter lob ve posterior pituiter lob‘tur. Bu iki lobda hipofiz fonksiyonu farklıdır. Bazı hormonlar posterior lob tarafından üretilir, ancak hormonların ana hacmi anterior hipofiz lobu tarafından üretilir.

1. Anterior Hipofiz Bezi Tarafından Üretilen Hormonlar

  • Adrenokortikotropik hormon (ACTH). ACTH’in ana hedefi adrenal salgı bezidir. Pituiter bez tarafından salınan bu hormon adrenal bez tarafından üretilen kortizole neden olur. Kortizol sırayla kan şekeri ve kan basıncını korumada vücuda yardımcı olur. Ayrıca, kortizol anti-inflamatuar olduğundan, kanamayla ve açlık ile mücadelede vücuda yardımcı olur.
  • Folikül stimüle edici hormon (FSH). Erkeklerde, FCH, testisleri üzerinde etki ederek ve testislerin sperm üretmelerine neden olur. Kadınlarda yumurtalıkları hedef alan hormon östrojen salgısını artırmaktan başka yumurta üretimine yardımcı olmaktadır.
  • Büyüme hormonu (GH). Büyüme hormonu çocuklarda ağırlık olarak boydan sorumludur. Vücuttaki kasları ve yağları da tutar.
  • Lüteinizan hormon (LH). Hormon, kadınlarda ovülasyona neden olan yumurtalıkları uyarır ve erkeklerdeki testislerin testosteron üretmesine neden olur.
  • Melanosit uyarıcı hormonu (MSH). İnsanlarda hormonun kesin rolü bilinmemektedir, ancak çok fazla üretildiğinde cildin kararmasına neden olur.
  • Prolaktin. Bu hormon diğer hormonlarla birlikte göğüsler tarafından süt üretimini tetikler. Hormon, hamile olmayan kadınlarda ve erkeklerde de bulunur, ancak nedeni iyi anlaşılmamıştır.
  • Tiroid hormon ‘ı uyarma sonucunda (TSH) uyarılır. Hormon, tiroidin kalp atış hızı ve sıcaklığından sorumlu hormon üretmesini sağlar.

2. Arka Hipofiz Bezi Tarafından Üretilen Hormonlar

  • Antidiüretik hormon (ADH). Hormon, idrar üretimini azaltarak dehidrasyonu önler. İnsanlarda kan basıncını artırdığı da bilinir.
  • Oksitosin. Oksitosin göğüsleri süt üretmeye teşvik eder ve doğum sırasında rahmin (uterus) kasılmasını sağlar.

Pituiter bez, etkinlik dönemleri ve rölatif boşa çıkma dönemleri arasında değişen patlamalarla hormonlar üretir. Bu döngü birkaç saatte bir tekrarlanır. Prolaktin, ACTH ve büyüme hormonu gibi bazı hormonların üretimi doğal bir 24 saatlik döngüyü takip eder. Bu hormonların salgılanma miktarı, uykudan uyanmamızdan hemen önce en yüksek seviyede olur ve uyku halindeyken en düşük seviyede olur. Üremeyi, özellikle kadınlarda follikül uyarıcı hormon ve lüteinizan hormon gibi hormonlar menstrüel siklusun üzerinde değişir. Diğer hormonlar periyodik olarak üretilir ve her periyot, hormona bağlı olarak eşsiz faktörler tarafından belirlenir.

Hipofiz Bezinden Kaynaklanabilecek Rahatsızlıklar?

Mide ile ortaya çıkan en yaygın sorun, hipofizdeki iyi huylu bir büyümedir. İyi huylu büyümeye bir tümör veya adenom denir. Bu tümör bir beyin tümörü değildir, çünkü bez beynin bir parçası değildir, beynin çok yakınına yerleştirilmiştir. Mide böğürtlenindeki böyle bir tümöre bir endokrin tümör denir. Adenom, bezin düzensiz davrandığına, bazı hormonların üretiminin arttırılmasına ve başkalarının üretiminin engellenmesine neden olabilir. Bazen, iyi huylu büyüme, hormon salgısı veya örneğinde hiçbir değişime neden olmaz. Bir hipofiz bezi tümörü hormon üretimini etkileyebildiğinden, önemli insan vücudu işlevlerinde ciddi sorunlara neden olabilir.

Aşağıda, insanların karşılaşacakları hipofiz bezi tümörünün belirtileri bulunmaktadır.

  • Ani havada değişiklikleri.
  • Cinsel yetersizlik.
  • Erektil disfonksiyon, erkeklerde cinsel işlev bozukluğu. İktidarsızlık.
  • Baş ağrısı.
  • Vizyonda sorun.
  • Göğüsler tarafından süt salınımında azalma.
  • Kadınlarda adet döngüsü varyasyonu.
  • Kolayca rahatsız olma eğilimi, kötü huylu olma.
  • Bacak ve kafanın büyümesi, çene ve kafatasının büyüme hormonunun çok fazla üretimi nedeniyle çok kalın olması problemi. Duruma akromegalice denir.
  • Bitkin olmak.
  • Diyabet, yüksek tansiyon, kilo artışı ve artmış ACTH salınımı nedeniyle bir anda kolayca morarma, renginin atması. Bu duruma Cushing sendromu denir.

Bu belirtilerden herhangi biri durumunuza uyuyorsa, zamanında tespit ve tıbbi bakım sağlamak için derhal doktorunuza danışmalısınız.

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